Joseph Eggleston Johnston (1807-1891) had a distinguished career in the U.S. Army before becoming an important Confederate general.
Joseph E. Johnston was born into a prominent family of Prince Edward County, Va. He enrolled at West Point in 1825 and, except for a brief interlude as a civil engineer, remained in military service until 1865. In 1845 he married Lydia McLane, the daughter of a diplomat and U.S. Cabinet officer. Johnston was a member of Gen. Winfield Scott's expedition against Mexico City during the Mexican War and was made brevet colonel in 1848. In 1860 he became quartermaster general of the U.S. Army.
When Virginia seceded from the Union, Johnston resigned from the Army and accepted a commission as a brigadier general in the Confederate service. When the Union army advanced toward Bull Run, he marched to cover Confederate troops at Manassas, thus making possible a Confederate victory. He was subsequently promoted to full general. In spring 1862 he marched to Yorktown to confront Union forces that were preparing to advance on Richmond. Although Confederate president Jefferson Davis believed that Johnston should defend his position as long as possible, Johnston disagreed and fell back on Richmond, leaving behind irreplaceable heavy artillery. He attacked the enemy army before Richmond on May 31, 1862, but poor planning and execution resulted in a drawn battle. Johnston was severely wounded and forced to retire temporarily.
Johnston's first assignment after his recovery was to coordinate the movements of Confederate forces in Mississippi and Tennessee. He complained that this arrangement was unworkable, and in fact he accomplished little. When the Union general Ulysses S. Grant crossed the Mississippi and moved against Vicksburg, Johnston went to take field command. Because one of Johnston's commanders disobeyed orders, both an army and Vicksburg were lost on July 4, 1863.
Despite the loss of Vicksburg, Davis chose Johnston to command the Army of Tennessee in 1863. He opposed Gen. William T. Sherman, who advanced on Atlanta in May 1864. Johnston retreated adroitly in the fact of heavy odds, but by July he had reached the outskirts of Atlanta. Davis relieved him of command on July 17, after Johnston refused to say whether or not he would abandon the city without a fight. He was recalled to active duty in February 1865 but was forced to surrender to Sherman's vastly superior forces that April.
After the war Johnston engaged in various pursuits, serving one term in Congress, writing his memoirs, and continuing his feud with Jefferson Davis. His last employment was as commissioner of railroads under President Grover Cleveland.
A scholarly and sympathetic biography of Johnston is Gilbert E.Govan and James W. Livingood, A Different Valor (1956). See also Robert M. Hughes, General Johnston (1893).
Johnston, Joseph E. (Joseph Eggleston), 1807-1891, Narrative of military operations during the Civil War, New York, N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1990.
Symonds, Craig L., Joseph E. Johnston: a Civil War biography, New York: Norton, 1992.